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  • Kanishka Choudhary

"The Impact of Recent Bank Mergers and Acquisitions on the Financial Industry: An In-Depth Analysis"


Kanishka Choudhary


AN ANALYSIS OF RECENT BANK MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS

Introduction

Acquisitions and mergers involve the strategic management of corporate finance as well as the purchasing, selling, splitting, and merging of several businesses that are comparable entities. Following a merger, one company transfers its ownership and control to the other. M&A is characterized as a restructuring that leads to an entity reorganization with the intention of generating growth or adding value. An industry or sector can be said to have undergone consolidation when a large-scale M&A activity combines the resources of several small businesses into a small number of larger ones, as was the case with the automobile industry from 1910 to 1940.

What is a merger?

An arrangement that merges two already-existing businesses into one new business is known as a merger. A corporation may merge to broaden its customer base, enter new markets, or increase its market share. The goals of all of these are value creation and shareholder satisfaction. The Companies Act of 1856 regulates/covers mergers. Finding compatible partners, agreeing on payment terms, and eventually combining both businesses to form a new one are the steps involved in a merger.

Types of mergers

There are five types of mergers such as:

Conglomerate mergers

When two or more companies are engaged into unrelated business activities. After the engaged the firm may be operate in the different industries or n different geographical regions. Pure conglomerate merger involves two firms that have nothing in common.

Mixed-conglomerate

Takes place between organizations that, while operating in unrelated business activities, are actually trying to gain product or market extensions through-out the merger.

Congeneric Mergers

Congeneric merger is also known as Product Extension merger. When the two or more companies are operating in the same market or sector with overlapping factors, such as technology, marketing, production process, research & development, a product extension merger is been achieved when a new product line from one company is been added to an existing product line of the other company.

Market Extension Mergers

When two companies that operates the same products but the complete in different markets. Companies that engage into a market extension merger seek to gain access to a bigger market so it is a bigger client base.

Horizontal Mergers

When the two companies are operating into the same industries with two or more competitors offering the same products or services. The goal is to created a larger business with the greater market share and economies of the scale since competition among fewer companies tends to be higher.

Vertical Mergers

When the two companies that are produce parts or services for a specific finished products merger, the union is referred as a vertical merger. vertical merger is been occurs when the two companies operating at different levels within the same industries in supply chain combine their operations. The objectives are to increase synergies achieved through the cost reduction a which result from merging with one or more supply companies.

Recent Trends in Bank Mergers and Acquisitions

It is impossible to overlook the significance of banks in the modern economy. The banking industry is essential to the nation's economic growth. The banking industry is a financial entity that carries out a number of tasks, including taking deposits and providing loans to businesses in the industrial and agricultural sectors. Global banking will change simultaneously with India's economy, which will move from a manufacturing-based to a developing service-based one. The Indian banking industry is changing overall. Indian banks have consistently demonstrated their unquestionable ability to adapt and become robust, agile organizations. In recent years, there have been continuing mergers and amalgamations in the banking sector. In line with the banking companies Acts of 1970 and 1980 (Acquisition and Transfer of undertaking), the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), the Central Government, may design a plan for the combination of any nationalized bank with another nationalized bank or banking sector. India's financial system has accomplished many notable things over the last thirty years. Its wide range is what stands out the most. Even in the most remote areas of the nation, the Indian banking system is there. India's banking system has spread to even the most remote areas of the nation, which is one of the primary factors contributing to the country's progress. Before, acquiring a draft or taking out his own money at the bank counter required an account holder to wait for hours on end. However, they have an option now. Furthermore, it took two days for the most efficient bank to move funds between branches. But these days, it's as easy as calling for a pizza or sending an instant message. In India, banks have been essential to the nation's socioeconomic development since its independence. The financial sector reforms, which have been implemented gradually, have brought about quick changes for Indian banks, resulting in an exciting period of change.Following the liberalization of the Indian economy, the government launched a series of reform initiatives based on the Narasimhan Committee's recommendations to strengthen the banking industry's competitiveness and economic viability. India's financial sector has surely achieved a great deal in a relatively short period of time, making it the largest and most varied democracy in the world. The government's strategic agenda includes the banking sector reform process as a component that aims to reposition and integrate the Indian banking sector into the global financial system. The Indian banking industry has grown significantly as a result of numerous reforms, numerous successful mergers and acquisitions, and other factors. The most popular tactic used by banks—or any corporate entity—to fortify and preserve their position in the market is mergers and acquisitions. M&A’s are thought to be a reasonably quick and effective approach to introduce new technologies and enter new markets. For example, New Bank of India was acquired by Punjab National Bank in 1993. It is impossible to overlook the significance of banks in the modern economy. The banking industry is essential to the nation's economic growth. Financial institutions in the banking sector carry out a variety of tasks, including taking deposits and extending loans to businesses in the agricultural and industrial sectors. Global banking will change simultaneously with India's economy, which will move from a manufacturing-based to a developing service-based one. Indian banking is currently experiencing transformation. Without a question, Indian banks have consistently demonstrated their ability to adapt and become a resilient and flexible business. In recent years, there have been continuing mergers and amalgamations in the banking sector. In line with the banking companies Acts of 1970 and 1980 (Acquisition and Transfer of undertaking), the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), the Central Government, may design a plan for the combination of any nationalized bank with another nationalized bank or banking sector. India's financial system has accomplished many notable things over the last thirty years.

Case Studies: A Closer Look at Major Bank Mergers

Merger of Several Public Banks

The Narasimhan committee encouraged the merger of weaker banks with stronger ones to provide stability and diversify risk management in the banking sector. The merger of six weaker public sector banks (PSBs) with four better performing anchor banks, including Andhra Bank and Corporation Bank, took effect from 1.4.2020. The merger aims to harness rich individual legacies and forge a dynamic shared future. The Central Government notified the Amalgamation Scheme, 2020, to merge the banks, generating cost and revenue synergies of INR 2,500 crores over the next three years. The merger offers wider access to branches, ATMs, digital services, and credit facilities to over 120 million customers across its over 9,500 branches and 13,500 ATMs.

The Legal Implications of PSB Mergers

The Banking Regulation Act of 1949 governs private banks and related banking companies, requiring mergers to be approved by a two-third majority of shareholders. This provision is applicable to government-owned and state-run banks, including Regional Rural Banks. The government supports restructuring of PSBs, citing economies of scale and low costs as main advantages. The Act's provisions are not absolute and may not apply to government-owned and state-run banks. Following are the main advantages expected by the government out of the consolidation.

• Operational efficiency will improve: consolidation under big banks will enhance the operational efficiency. Large means the benefit of consolidated control.

• Reduced number of boards: With reduced number of banks, the government can reduce the number of bank boards as well. Number of boards will come down and the number of board members will be rationalized and reduced.

• Cost of lending will come down: with less fragmentation, cos structure will come down and this will help to reduce the interest rate for loans and deposits. All the assets of the amalgamating banks will become the assets of amalgamated banks and hence the customers will enjoy the greater services of the Banks.

• All the existing customers of amalgamating banks will become the customers of the amalgamated bank. They just have to get their passbook, cheque book renewed as and when they visit the concerned branch.

• All the employees of the amalgamating banks will become the employees of the amalgamated banks and hence there will not be any effect on their employment.

• All the branches of the amalgamating banks will become the branches of amalgamated bank.

Conclusion

Bank mergers and acquisitions are strategic management of corporate finance, involving the purchase, selling, splitting, and merging of several businesses that are comparable entities. These transactions aim to generate growth or add value, and can be regulated by the Companies Act of 1856. There are five types of mergers: conglomerate mergers, mixed-conglomerates, generic mergers, market extension mergers, horizontal mergers, and vertical mergers. India's banking industry is crucial for the nation's economic growth, as it carries out tasks such as taking deposits and providing loans to businesses in the industrial and agricultural sectors. The Indian banking system has expanded to remote areas, contributing to the country's progress. The government has launched reform initiatives based on the Narasimhan Committee's recommendations to strengthen the banking industry's competitiveness and economic viability. The Indian banking sector has grown significantly due to numerous reforms, successful mergers and acquisitions, and other factors. M&As are considered a quick and effective approach to introduce new technologies and enter new markets. India's financial system has achieved many notable things over the last thirty years, with banks consistently demonstrating their ability to adapt and become resilient and flexible businesses. The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) may design a plan for the combination of any nationalized bank with another nationalized bank or banking sector, in line with the banking companies Acts of 1970 and 1980.

 

 

 

 

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